Medically reviewed by Dr Chandril Chugh,

Renowned Neurologist and American Trained Specialist

Hello! This topic that I’m going to tell you about is super important; it is about COVID-19 Vaccination. We know that vaccination helps protect us from getting very sick due to the coronavirus. However, similar to some other medications, vaccines can have some side effects. Today we will talk about the possible side effects of different COVID-19 vaccines. We will make it simple but clear, and you will understand everything. Are you ready for that? So, let’s go!

Why Do Vaccines Have Side Effects?

When you get a vaccine, it’s like your immune system is having a little practice run on fighting that disease, in this case, the virus. This will help you know how to find and smash the virus if you then come into contact with it in real life. The side effects you might feel are just signs that your body is working hard to build this protection.

Side Effects of COVID-19 Vaccination

Most Likely Side Effects of COVID-19 Vaccination

Side Effects of COVID-19 Vaccination, which are usually mild and go away on their own within a few days after getting the vaccine. Here are some of the most common ones

  • Sore Arm: The area where you got the shot may be sore or tender, and this is one of the most common side effects.
  • Tiredness: It’s normal to feel tired more than usual.
  • Headache: You may experience a mild headache following vaccination.
  • Muscle and Joint Pain: Your muscles and joints can feel achy.
  • Fever and Chills: You might get a mild fever or chills.
  • Swelling or Redness at the Injection Site: The place where you got your injection will be swollen or red.

Usually, these side effects are nothing to worry about; rather, they are a sign that the vaccine is behaving as it should and that your body is building strength.


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Comparison of Various Covid-19 Vaccines

Below, we are going to talk about some of the Side Effects of COVID-19 Vaccination.

Comparison of Some Common Side Effects of Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, Johnson & Johnson, and AstraZeneca.


This is one of the initial vaccines to be created against COVID-19 and to get approval. Used with the name Pfizer-BioNTech, there are a few side effects, and these are:

  • Common side effects: sore arm, tiredness, headache, muscle pain, chills, fever, swelling, or redness at the injection site.
  • Rare side effects: swollen lymphatic nodes due to vaccination are to be found in some people. In some very rare cases, myocarditis has also been found, which mainly affects the younger male population.


This vaccine is quite similar to the Pfizer-BioNTech, and the side effects are almost the same:

  • Common side effects: sore arm, fatigue, headache muscle, aches chills, fever, and swelling or redness at the injection site.
  • Less common side effects: just like Pfizer, the Moderna vaccine can also cause swollen lymph nodes in some people, and in some rare cases, myocarditis has also been found in younger people.

Johnson & Johnson (Janssen)

This is a single-dose COVID vaccine, while both Pfizer and Moderna are two-dose vaccines, so its side effects are:

  • Common side effects: sore arm, fatigue, headache, muscle aches, chills, fever, and swelling or redness at the injection site.
  • Less Common Side Effects: Blood clots, especially in women below the age of 50. Very rare cases, but this being something that really occurs means that people considering this vaccine should be made aware of it.


Another well-known vaccine is the AstraZeneca vaccine. Here are some of the side effects which the vaccine is linked to:

  • Common Side Effects: Sore arm, tiredness, headache, muscle pain, chills, fever, and swelling or redness at the site of injection.
  • Less Common Side Effects: Like the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, in very rare instances, there is a report of blood clots, especially in younger women. The cases are very rare.

Side Effects of COVID-19 Vaccination

Why Side Effects Matter

You might be thinking, if side effects can be unpleasant, then why should we take the vaccine? Actually, most of the side effects of both vaccines are mild and do not last long. On the other hand, COVID-19 can be a very severe and sometimes fatal illness. Vaccines work to bring about maximum protection against severe and critical illness, hospitalization, and death from COVID-19. They also help reduce the spread of the virus by protecting people around you.

Managing Side Effects

If you do experience side effects, here are some tips to help you feel better:

  • Rest: Make sure you get plenty of rest.
  • Stay Hydrated: Drink plenty of water.
  • Use a Cool Compress: If your arm is sore, try applying a cool, damp cloth to the area.
  • Over-the-Counter Pain Relievers: Medicines like acetaminophen or ibuprofen can help with pain and fever. Just make sure to follow the instructions on the package or ask an adult for help.
  • Keep Moving: Being active can help minimize pain in that arm.

Serious Side Effects of COVID-19 Vaccination: Heart Attack, Blood Clots and Stroke

While the common side effects of COVID-19 vaccines are generally mild and short-lived, there have been reports of more serious side effects, such as heart attacks, blood clots, and strokes. It’s important to understand these risks, even though they are extremely rare. Let’s take a closer look at these serious side effects for the different COVID-19 vaccines.

Heart Attack

  • Risk: The risk of heart attack after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine is very low. Most reports of heart problems have been related to inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis) or the outer lining of the heart (pericarditis), rather than heart attacks.
  • Vaccines: The Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines have had some reports of myocarditis and pericarditis, particularly in young males. These cases are rare and usually mild, with most people recovering fully with treatment.

Blood Clots

Risk: Some COVID-19 vaccines have been linked to a rare type of blood clotting disorder called thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS). This condition involves blood clots occurring in combination with low levels of platelets (the cells that help your blood clot).

  • Johnson & Johnson (Janssen): There have been reports of TTS, especially in women under 50. The overall risk is very low, but it’s important for healthcare providers to be aware of this potential side effect.
  • AstraZeneca: Similar to the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, the AstraZeneca vaccine has been associated with rare cases of TTS, particularly in younger women.


  • Risk: The risk of stroke following a COVID-19 vaccination is extremely rare. Most studies and reports have not found a significant increase in the risk of stroke associated with the vaccines.
  • Vaccines: All COVID-19 vaccines have undergone extensive testing and monitoring for safety. While there have been a few reports of stroke, these incidents are very rare and often not directly linked to the vaccine itself.

Comparing the Risks: Vaccine Side Effects vs. COVID-19

It’s natural to be concerned about the potential side effects of vaccines, especially when we hear about serious conditions like heart attacks, blood clots, and strokes. However, it’s crucial to compare these risks with the risks associated with getting COVID-19 itself.

Risks of COVID-19:

  • Severe Illness: COVID-19 can cause severe illness, leading to hospitalization and even death, especially in older adults and people with underlying health conditions.
  • Long COVID: Many people who recover from COVID-19 experience long-term symptoms, known as “long COVID,” which can affect their health and quality of life.
  • Blood Clots and Strokes: COVID-19 infection itself significantly increases the risk of blood clots and strokes, much more than the risk posed by the vaccines.

Making an Informed Decision

Understanding the risks and benefits of COVID-19 vaccines can help you make an informed decision. Here are some key points to consider:

  • Vaccines Save Lives: The primary goal of the COVID-19 vaccines is to prevent severe illness, hospitalization, and death. The benefits of getting vaccinated far outweigh the risks of serious side effects.
  • Monitor for Symptoms: If you do get vaccinated, it’s important to monitor for any unusual symptoms. Seek medical attention if you experience severe headaches, chest pain, shortness of breath, or leg swelling.
  • Talk to Your Doctor: If you have any concerns about the vaccines, especially if you have a history of heart problems or blood clots, talk to your healthcare provider. They can help you weigh the risks and benefits based on your personal health history.


Getting vaccinated is one of the best ways to protect yourself and others from COVID-19. While the vaccines can cause some side effects, these are usually mild and go away on their own. By understanding the side effects and knowing how to manage them, you can feel more confident about getting vaccinated. Remember, the benefits of getting vaccinated far outweigh the temporary discomfort of side effects. So, let’s all do our part to stay healthy and keep our communities safe. If you have any concerns or questions, don’t hesitate to talk to a healthcare professional. They’re there to help you